FRCS (ORL-HNS) 5 Question Preview

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FRCS (ORL-HNS) 5 Question Preview

Gauge Your Readiness for the FRCS ORL-HNS Exam

Curious about what the FRCS ORL-HNS exam will entail? Try our 5-question preview quiz to get a taste of the actual exam. This brief quiz will help you identify your strengths and areas for improvement. Ready to challenge yourself?

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Category: FRCS (ORL-HNS) – Facial Plastic Surgery

A 48-year-old female patient with a history of basal cell carcinoma over the right zygoma underwent wide local excision. The resulting defect required a flap reconstruction, and the attending surgeon chose a temporal cutaneous flap for the procedure. During the surgery, the surgeon noted that the flap’s blood supply was compromised. Which of the following arteries is most likely to be responsible for the compromised blood supply to the temporal cutaneous flap?

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Category: FRCS (ORL-HNS) – Anatomy

A 45-year-old woman with no significant medical history presents to the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic headaches and intermittent facial pain. She has no previous history of trauma or surgery. A coronal CT scan of her paranasal sinuses is performed to evaluate the potential causes of her symptoms, focusing on the anatomical structures around the sphenoid sinus. On a coronal CT scan of the paranasal sinuses, which statement best describes the typical anatomical relationship of the foramen lacerum to the sphenoid sinus?

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Category: FRCS (ORL-HNS) – Embryology

A 35-year-old woman presents with recurrent infections and discharge from bilateral preauricular pits. She has had multiple episodes of swelling and pain in the area, particularly after upper respiratory infections. Examination reveals small pits anterior to the tragus on both sides. What is the most likely embryological origin of her condition?

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Category: FRCS (ORL-HNS) – Benign Head and Neck and Endocrine

A 73-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with severe angioedema involving her tongue, palate, pharynx, and neck. The swelling has distorted her neck anatomy, making normal landmarks difficult to palpate. She is in severe respiratory distress, and the anesthetist finds standard oral or nasal intubation impossible. What is the MOST appropriate immediate airway management?

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Category: FRCS (ORL-HNS) – Microbiology

A 28-year-old man with poor dentition presents with unilateral left facial pain, swelling, and purulent nasal discharge for five days. On examination, he has severe dental caries and tenderness over the left maxillary sinus. An orthopantomogram reveals bone resorption around the roots of the upper left second molar and an opaque left maxillary antrum. What is the most probable causative pathogen in this scenario?

Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, and Pathophysiology of the Neck

Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Otolaryngology Examinations

OtoPrep Endolymphatic sac surgical anatomy
Endolymphatic Sac Surgery Anatomy for Otolaryngology Examinations

Anatomy and Physiology

The endolymphatic sac is an extension of the membranous labyrinth, located in the posterior part of the temporal bone. It regulates endolymphatic fluid pressure and volume, crucial for inner ear function.

How well do you know Endolymphatic Sac Anatomy?

Identify these structures on the image above:
1. Horizontal semicircular canal
2. Facial nerve
3. Posterior semicircular canal
4. Endolymphatic sac
5. Posterior fossa dura
6. Sigmoid sinus
  • Horizontal semicircular canal: Detects angular acceleration.
  • Facial nerve: Responsible for facial expression and taste sensation.
  • Posterior semicircular canal: Also involved in detecting angular acceleration.
  • Endolymphatic sac: Regulates endolymphatic fluid pressure and volume.
  • Posterior fossa dura: Outermost layer of the meninges in the posterior fossa.
  • Sigmoid sinus: Drains blood from the brain towards the heart.

Pathology and Pathophysiology

Endolymphatic sac surgery is primarily indicated in the treatment of Meniere's disease, believed to be related to an imbalance in endolymph production and absorption.

  • Meniere's Disease: Characterized by vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness.
  • Endolymphatic Hydrops: Excessive accumulation of endolymph in the inner ear.

Endolymphatic sac surgery aims to reduce endolymphatic pressure through decompression or diversion of fluid. It may involve exposing the sac by removing bone and dura, followed by shunt placement or sac decompression.

Otolaryngology Examination Questions

  1. Indications for Surgery: "What conditions indicate endolymphatic sac surgery, and what are the expected outcomes?"
  2. Surgical Approach: "Describe the surgical approach to the endolymphatic sac for decompression in Meniere's disease."
  3. Complications: "What are the potential complications of endolymphatic sac surgery?"
  4. Anatomical Considerations: "Discuss the anatomical structures at risk during endolymphatic sac surgery."